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Articles - Étudiants SUPINFO

Autonomous cars, assets and disadvantages.

Par Elies EL HASSANI Publié le 25/10/2019 à 23:55:13 Noter cet article:
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Introduction

Autonomous vehicles, strengths and weaknesses.

Indeed this type of vehicle does exist and this is no longer for James BOND or K200!

We are there, commonly called "unmanned cars", "robotic or autonomous vehicle".

Able to analyze and take the lead in several cases.

For unmanned vehicles , shuttles or other types they are free of flywheels or throttles, a kind of cocoon it will take us automatically to destination according to need, however research is still in progress .

Google itself is interfering, and relies on software essential to the operation of autonomous vehicles which causes a growing craze among the general public for new technologies, and the growth of research and development capital.

Let's discover together the well-made and the bad sides of these cars that are self-contained, with a small comparison.

How it works ?

Unmanned vehicles analyze their environment using technologies such as lidar, GPS, and computer detection, as well as other methods of geolocation and collision detection . The data is handled so that the car imprints the most suitable routes while complying with the regulations in force.

It detects any obstacle in its path and initiates bypass maneuvers when necessary. Composed of a map may be updated at any time following the data collected. As a result, the car will be able to take decisions in complete safety , even on roads that have never been used before.

NHTSA Ranking

Small ranking of cars without drivers; American road safety called NHTSA creates a ranking by level according to the degree of autonomy of the vehicles.

Here are the rankings:

Level 0 : The pilot has the possibility to recover the hand on his vehicle at any time.

Level 1 : The control elements are always the responsibility of the pilot while others are automated as for the brakes.

Level 2 : One can with this automated level simultaneously two or more features , such as speed regulation, or even be able to maintain its trajectory on the same track without effort on the part of the driver.

Level 3: The driver can fully delegate driving to the machine according to the weather and traffic situation.

Level 4 : The integral control of the vehicle is managed by its own system, the user of the transport does not come into play anywhere, the driving is completely assured by the computer.

Let's take a look at the highlights of these automated vehicles:

Intelligent vehicles, strengths and weaknesses.

• In considering obsolete human drivers, one could imagine all kinds of entertainment in these "spaces" of transport. So freeing up space and releasing especially also the users remained staring at the road and driving. Video games but multimedia in general could find there a new territory to conquer, more driving constraints .., so more time to occupy during travel.

• In the major parts of road accidents, human error is caused. Humans can be affected by fatigue, stupidity, alcohol or drugs.

On the other hand, autonomous vehicles, respect the rules of the road, do not make mistakes of inattention or other . It can therefore be deduced without pretension that accidents will become rarer and security will only be enhanced.

• Similar to a train, the occupants of the PLC transport will be able to rest and move at night as well as during the day .

• The lack of concentration on their driving as well as the reaction time of the drivers are most of the time at the origin of traffic jams . The automaton by its operation will be able to solve many traffic problem, would it be the end of traffic jam end of the day? One thing is about the traffic will be regulated more easily, so a traffic flow.

• Automata transport avoids any exhaustion related to driving. No more stress, or fear of not reaching your destination or making a mistake on your itinerary and missing your appointment.

• An ability to recover and analyze data largely increased by motion sensors, obstacle and collision detectors called sensory sensor, Even in complicated weather conditions when visibility and poor (fog), the automaton vehicle can perceive him any obstacle even far away and thus avoid the accident.

• An increase in the speed limit could be considered, users will benefit from faster travel.

Farewell the burden of slots, nothing has been easier than parking when not driving, it will therefore be a responsibility to delegate more to the vehicle's automation system, ends the chore, the car could take you to your destination then go and wait in his place nicely.

• A significant asset for people with reduced mobility and the elderly, imagine even an automated school bus, see a reliable transport for drunk people late in the evening, more needs of SAM, no need for a driver so permit, a boon for teenagers looking for freedom .

• Insurance will undoubtedly lose their affinity or at least their commercial power, which will affect the rates of their packages, and always to the benefit of users .

• Less error therefore detours or incidents on the route, optimization of driving, so journeys are more run, cheaper fuel and less harmful to the environment .

• The means put in place to mitigate the risk of the road and the safety of drivers may be redirected to accommodate the infrastructure necessary for the circulation of this new type of vehicle.

• A more pleasant sensation and transport experience for passengers

• Less rob, had to a system of security and geolocalisation more powerful than ever. Let's dive into the story now ..

History of autonomous cars:

The first automate car concept was born in the 1920s . Then made a big leap forward in the 1950s . Nevertheless, it was from the 1980s , the birth of computers , that the theory could be put into practice. Here is the list of companies that have researched and manufactured prototypes or functional products:

- Mercedes-Benz

- General Motors

- Bosch

- Nissan

- Renault

- Toyota

- Google

- The negative points :

Unfortunately, as any revolution that digital but especially that of autonomous vehicles will cause collateral damage . Indeed the area of ​​smart cars will also include some flats that here.

• A disappearance of the trades of chauffeur VTC , taxi driver, courier , truck driver .

• The reliability of the system must be flawless , because even a beug could have consequences much more dramatic than an accident whose origin would be human error .

• From a legal point of view, everything is to be done, nothing is yet established; in case of accidents who are responsible for the lack of driver, the manufacturer of the software? or even the owner of the automaton?

• The data management arising from the use of autonomous cars will certainly pose a problem, with respect to the privacy of users, the data in question contain all their travel, and many other personal aspects of privacy that users want to preserve .

• Like any computerized system, robotic cars, are subject to hacking , can seriously in dangerous the passengers of the vehicle, the risk is significant and significant, a security breach can be expensive because lives are at stake .

• For the moment, the weather limits the possibilities of certain vehicles that are struggling in bad weather, rain or snow. The laser technology of the sensor is disturbed during heavy rain and the camera sometimes sees the vision obstruct by the snow.

• A question also arises, that of the dissociation between an obstacle and a living being , faced with such a scenario how to anticipate the reaction of a system of lack of consciousness .

• Given the growing tendency to become a pilot, frequent users will lose the habit of driving , so if one day the situation lends itself to it, and the urgency press the daily users will have lost in skills , which will be problematic.

• Work to be planned ..., indeed the current infrastructure does not allow to accommodate this type of vehicle, current legislation will have to evolve to adapt to the change of conduct and the steering algorithm, the signaling too will have to change and may be brought to communicate directly with the car systems . As you have understood, all change management must be operated.

• Moral ethics will be an important issue at the heart of this change . What a decision to decide whether to decide between colliding with a pedestrian and attempting an avoidance maneuver that will surely kill the user of the car. What would be the "best" choice? Who would be involved?

Moreover, let us admit that an animal arises on the road, the previous problem could arise to a lesser extent, what behavior adopted ? Safety is context-related, but the balance between the well-being of passengers and the preservation of any life must be guaranteed before any circulation can be considered.

Human interaction may not be correctly interpreted by artificial intelligences. Sudden movements or hands will be difficult factors for them to interpret.

• In the event of unlawful or criminal immoral behavior, the police will not be able to determine or incriminate the culprit (s) because the human is no longer in control.

Conclusion

The car is therefore a real technological advance with many advantages in its sleeve, and many opportunities for evolution , however, we must still be vigilant in terms of ethics , and prepare to welcome change , in terms of infrastructure, but also from a legal and sociological point of view.

Risks must be measured , great power implies great responsibility .

Sources:

1:https://www.lefigaro.fr/secteur/high-tech/jean-francois-bonnefon-la-voiture-autonome-pose-des-questions-ethiques-vertigineuses-20191023 2: http://tpe-voiture-autonome.e-monsite.com/pages/sommaire/ii-comparaison-a-la-conduite-humaine/1-avantages.html

3:https://www.google.fr/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.challenges.fr%2Fautomobile%2Fmondial-de-l-automobile-salon-de-l-auto%2Fvoiture-autonome-sans-mains-souleve-questions-responsabilite-securite-piratage_430219&psig=AOvVaw06P7-BsaCMc_KE3d-gZnUv&ust=1572036734311000&source=images&cd=vfe&ved=2ahUKEwi--p-q47XlAhUa_xoKHaZ5CesQr4kDegUIARDJAg

4: http://www.minutefacile.com/high-tech-auto/25231-les-avantages-et-desavantages-de-la-voiture-autonome/

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