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The history of mobile telephony in France

Par Julien GROSSIN Publié le 28/10/2019 à 18:56:16 Noter cet article:
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Introduction

The article aims to discover the beginnings of mobile telephony, as well as these developments that led us to generation 4 that we all know today.

This article is based on the evolution of mobile telephony in mainland France and operators.

The history of mobile telephony

The first network appears in 1956, this network is called manual because it requires the action of an operator to operate.

This network uses the 150 Mhz frequency band. The operator was in charge of connecting subscriber A to subscriber B.

This service was complex and the range limit was quite low.

  • In 1986, the first generation of telephone network is born. It is powered in France by Radiocom 2000 (distributed by France Telecom). The network worked with the frequency band 400 MHz.

  • In 1987, SFR opened the market and qualified as a major competitor of France Telecom. SFR becomes the first private operator.

  • In 1991, a new type of network was set up by France Telecom, Bi-Bop. The phone fits in a pocket, it is wireless. However, the range is very low, so it was proposed in fairly dense urban areas.

  • In 1992, the Itineris brand was launched by France Telecom. It is the first French operator to use a digital technology that is based on the GSM standard. The frequency used is 900 MHz.

  • The year 1996 revealed the packages for the general public, then 1997 was the year of the prepaid cards.

  • This second option has democratized the mobile phone even for people with non-regular income. Operators have tried to target the young population for whom it is easy to change their lifestyle.

  • In 2001, Orange (France Telecom) and SFR obtained their UMTS. They launched their own GPRS networks, Bouygues Télécom did the same. GPRS is an evolution of GSM.

  • In 2002, Bouygues also obtainshis License UMTS and launched its 3G network.

  • In 2004, SFR and Orange launched their UMTS (3G) networks.

  • In 2009, Free Mobile obtains the 3G frequency bands and this allows him to be the 4th French mobile operator. Its goal is to lower the prices of the offers.

  • In 2012, Free Mobile launched itself as the 4th mobile network in France with two non-binding mobile plans, one at 2€ and the second at 19.99€. By launching these two offers, it fully meets its stated purpose.

  • The year 2012 was marked by the launch of the 4th generation of the mobile telephone network (4G). 4G allows you to surf faster than 3G with significantly higher rates. Loading times are decreased. Users are increasingly greedy for mobile data with surfing, video and sharing. 4G can meet this growing need.

According to some rumor, the 5G would be in development, for an arrival in France by 2020.

The 5th Generation Mobile Network (5G) is expected to be the next telecommunication standard to go beyond the current 4G.

The 5G is designed to target higher flow capacities than the current 4G.

The interest will be to offer a greater density of users to have access to broadband on their mobile devices with significantly reduced latency.

MVNOs

An MVNO (mobile virtual network operator) is a virtual operator that goes through the network of historical operators to operate.

Here is a list of some MVNOs: La poste Mobile, NRJ Mobile, Coriolis Telecom.

French Mobile Frequencies

2G :

  • 900

  • 1800

3G :

  • 900

  • 2100

4G :

  • 700

  • 800

  • 1800

  • 2600

If you want to buy a mobile on the internet or abroad, you must be vigilant in verifying that the mobile is compatible with the frequencies used by your French operator.

If this is not the case, the mobile will not be able to connect to the network.

Bibliography

http://www.telecomspourtous.fr/histoire-reseau-mobile-france/

http://www.mobilophiles.com/article-32255774.html

https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Téléphonie_mobile_en_France#Premiers_r.C3.A9seaux_de_t.C3.A9l.C3.A9phonie_mobile

http://www.begeek.fr/free-mobile-loffre-de-forfaits-presentee-au-cours-du-lancement-49744

https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fréquences_de_téléphonie_mobile_en_France#Bande_des_700_MHz

https://www.gsmarena.com/network-bands.php3?sCountry=FRANCE

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