Stakeholder and development team
Stakeholders are individuals with a vested interest in the success
of a project. They aren't directly involved in building a product, but may
participate in the development process in various ways.
For example, some stakeholders provide technical know-how, while
others make decisions about which product features are essential. An agile
project evolves as it progresses, through a continuous process of
inspection and adaptation.
For this approach to succeed, stakeholders have to participate
actively during the course of the development process. Rather than simply
making plans and then ensuring the plans are followed, they need to shape
a project and the product it delivers as work proceeds.
So it's vital for an agile project to have a highly engaged project
community. An agile project community consists of the development team and
other stakeholders. These are the people who affect or are affected by the
The development team consists of the individuals whose daily
responsibility involves working on project tasks and implementing the
project requirements. The team generally includes a project leader,
programmers, designers, and testers. The titles and roles of team members
vary depending on the agile methodology that's used.
For example, in Extreme Programming all team members are simply
Stakeholder types and responsibilities
Stakeholders can be internal or external to the organization that
develops a product.
Internal stakeholders work for the
organization, whereas external stakeholders are usually clients or
customers from outside the organization.
Members of the executive team responsible for a project are examples
of internal stakeholders. They make investment and risk decisions, and
provide the support everyone needs to implement the agile approach.
For example, a finance manager may request regular progress updates
in order to keep track of expenses and allocate the necessary
Developers who aren't part of the assigned team for a particular
project may also be internal stakeholders. They may contribute their
experience and knowledge, assisting the team as necessary.
Developers may also want to have some influence or make suggestions
during initial development because they'll become part of the project at a
later stage – for example, when another version of a software program is
External stakeholders include
members of the product team. This team includes the customer or product
owner, and may include one or more domain experts and a business
External stakeholders may also include end users, who'll use the
product that's developed. These stakeholders aren't interested in how the
product is developed, but in whether the product does what they expect it
to do. Ideally, end users – or end user representatives – should be active
participants in the agile development process, in particular during the
planning and design phase.
They're a vital source of information about what a product should do
and how it should function, and about the product's marketability.
For example, when developing a hospital management system, an
end-user group may consist of doctors, nurses, pharmacists, supply clerks,
lab technicians, and anyone else who needs to enter, monitor, and track
patient information at a hospital. The customer is the person or entity
that commissions a product, and is ultimately responsible for identifying
the features that will create value.
They represent the interests of the customer and include the product
owner, domain expert, and business analyst. One of the major benefits of
working with onsite customers is that face-to-face communication can occur
throughout the project.
An onsite customer may be an end user, who can guide the team in
what a product must be able to do. Alternatively, the onsite customer will
need to liaise closely with actual end users, collect feedback, and
communicate it to the development team.
An agile project manager or leader is responsible for managing
stakeholder engagement so the development team can build a product that
meets all requirements and fulfills all success criteria. This can happen
only if information flows freely between stakeholders and everyone is able
to understand it.
Member of the product team
There are 3 members in the product team .
Product owner :
The product owner represents the customer and is responsible for
promoting, communicating, and updating the product vision. The product
owner uses it to create use cases or user stories, set priorities, and
review the validity of completed work.
The product owner has to be fully committed to the project or it's
likely that the final product it delivers won't meet the customer's
Domain expert :
A domain expert is a technical subject matter expert. The
development team may rely on a domain expert's expertise and advice to
solve problems and build a product that's technically accurate. If a team
is developing a medical software program, for example, a hospital
administrator or a doctor might serve as a domain expert.
Business analyst :
The business analyst is the intermediary between the customer and
the development team. The analyst's role involves analyzing the customer's
needs to ensure the finalized product creates value. The analyst also
works with the development team to identify technical limitations or
In a project that involves designing a car, for example, the
business analyst would be the intermediary between the car manufacturer
and the designers.
The project leader facilitates discussions between stakeholders and
the development team, during which user stories are generated. He needs to
ensure everyone participates fully so that the stories reflects the