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Artificial intelligence and machine learning

Par Fayçal SIDI ALI MEBAREK Publié le 22/08/2019 à 14:47:16 Noter cet article:
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The cinema of the 80s built the collective imagination concerning the artificial intelligence and the futur of our societies that will be able to coexist with machines, with films such as Blade Runner, Terminator ... and more recently The Matrix. We can take for example futuristic autonomous cars, which are often present in science fiction movies. Nowadays, this future is closer than ever and no longer belongs to the cinema: luxury car brands have equipped their vehicles with navigation systems and software that can collect vehicle data, for example if some vehicules parts are damaged and know if they should be replaced, for example; or Elon Musk's Testa cars, working on prototypes of vehicles equipped with an autopilot system. Another example, this time around Nvidia, known as the leader in the graphics card market, uses artificial intelligence concepts to allow vehicles (at the prototype stage as well) to visualize the environment.

This technology holds great promise for businesses and industries. We will see here the possibilities that the AI ​​can offer and what will help it to realize its full potential.

Dawn of a technological revolution

We have known the revolution of the internet or the one of mobile communications; Today we are at the dawn of a revolution of greater magnitude than these.

In my previous article on the Golang programming language (entitled "Why use Golang language ?"), we approached Moore's Law, theorized by Intel's co-founder in 1965, Gordon Moore. This law stipulates that the physical power of the processors will double every year. So far, his theory has proven to be quite accurate since all areas have benefited from incredible advances.

However, the articular intelligence is evolving even faster; exponentially. And this, thanks to the contributions of machine learning that can exceed all expectations in terms of technological input.

It is therefore an area that is today more and more present in all sectors. Coupled with the concepts of machine learning and big data, artificial intelligence presents itself as the next great technological era of our time. It will serve to make sense of the data collected and to find solutions to problems that are impossible to solve. However, this will make us, human beings, sources of considerable information; which is an ethical problem on which we have to think seriously; we will come back to it later.

Machine learning [1]

Machine learning is a set of algorithms that allow software to process data without actually being programmed. The objective is that these algorithms are able to use a statistical analysis to analyse them.

You had to be confronted with machine learning, even indirectly: for example in the case of marketing, when shopping online, offers articles related to those you ordered. This is because search engines and online sales sites use machine learning to personalize real-time ad services.

Here are some examples of systems that work with machine learning :

  • Autonomous cars.

  • Chatbots.

  • Face recognition software.

These are some examples; obliously, we could add a lot of other examples.

The machine learning algorithms fall into two categories, supervised and unsupervised learning, which we will see below:

Supervised learning

This is a type of system, where input data and output data are provided and then classified to process subsequent data.

The benefits of supervised learning versus unsupervised learning: Analyzes can be more easily understood by humans because they provide the data.

Unsupervised learning

Unsupervised learning is based on learning an AI algorithm. In this system, the AI has the ability to group data according to similarities and differences. Unsupervised learning algorithms have the ability to handle more complex data.

How machine learning works

Machine learning is therefore the association between artificial intelligence and big data; indeed, the goal is the processing of huge amounts of data, using them and adapt them to different situations, even more, to anticipate them. The idea is that he builds a network of "neurons" to predict situations.

IA in video games

Now we have briefly talking about AI and machine learning, I would like to go back in time to see how we have arrived here and how this area has progressed.

It can be said that video games is the domain that has played a leading role in artificial intelligence. Since more than 30 years, AI is present in this sector. If we are interested in this period, and the way video games evolved, we realize that the AI was already there, when we could play against the computer, and be allied with AIs. It started with computer chess games; the AI chess games have also defeated the world's greatest champions of chess ...

Since those times of our ancestors (I'm kidding), artificial intelligence has never stopped progressing, sometimes with stagnation. Today, we have reached the time where AI offers such realism with non-player characters (NPCs) that approaches human behavior; we will, however, issue some reservations anyway, because simulate the behavior of a human is a very complicated thing, but we are more and more closer to that.

With machine learning, it will eventually be an AI that will develop video game AIs in the future. Yes... this is crazy !

And what will increase this field to continue in research on artificial intelligence is its incredible economic and financial health. Indeed, this area alone is more profitable than the film and music industry combined. This will help fund research and work on AI.

AI in movies

As we said above in the introduction to this article, the theme of artificial intelligence is present from every angles in the cinema, in science fiction films.

I think we can divide these movies into two categories:

  • Those where AI is an "evil" entity turning against its creator, the human. Throughout these movies, humans fight this AI to destroy it. Here, then, the scenario is constructed according to a Manichean schema (the enemy AI wanting to destroy humanity); the goal for the writers is to warn about a potential overdeveloped AI. This scheme is present for example in films such as Matrix or Terminator.

  • Movies where the AI is a secondary character, supporting the main characters in their quests. Here, this AI is therefore good and here to supervise the humans: the objective of this scenarios is to understand the importance of reaching levels never reached by man; as for example the space conquest, in Interstellar.

A hyper-developing AI, always gives way to a duelist situation with humans. But why AI is also often perceived as an enemy potential:

The fear of AI as autonomous and "intelligent" is a cognitive bias: it would necessarily escape the control of man and be instinctively considered as threatening the survival of our species. The human species evolve in this way, instinctively considering something beyond our control, as a threat.

The way to approach artificial intelligence in the cinema reveal the image we have of this subject. The screenwriters project on screen our anxieties and our way of perceiving the new things.

Ethics regarding artificial intelligence

Here is one of the problems raised when we talk about the use of artificial intelligence. The problem is : using the AI is an ethical problem or not.

Developing an AI is also part of the understanding of privacy and privacy policies. Today, and in the future, artificial intelligence systems will have a leading role in all the sectors they touch. For the moment, the standards of what is acceptable and what is not, do not exist. Which will certainly be a problem.

For example, autonomous cars, will inevitably face accidents, causing injuries to passengers, exactly as today with human drivers. However, the difference is that we know how to solve a problem concerning the mistakes of a human, but not about an AI. The understanding escape us because it is impossible to blame a machine for an error.

It will be necessary for applications with artificial intelligence to be able to provide explanations concerning the actions they perform; so that we can understand and resolve the mistakes they could made.

It will be necessary to think of a kind of charter or laws concerning the machines, for the errors that they could commit. This is all the difficulties concerning the AI in our world.

Conclusion

It is how the evolution is built, but also the problematics that represents the technology of our future: the artificial intelligence. This promising technology, which may be the most controversial, offers unprecedented possibilities in all fields, it can propel humanity forward from a technological point of view.

We will probably see in a future article the theme of the transhumanist, which will be the fusion between our future technology and man. A marriage that will give birth to a "homo futurus", half-man half-machine. Terminator and The Matrix is about to become a reality.

bibliography

  1. https://searchenterpriseai.techtarget.com/definition/machine-learning-ML

  2. https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89thique_de_l%27intelligence_artificielle

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